This report, commissioned by the Sleep Health Foundation, conducts a comprehensive evidence synthesis from national and international medical literature examining the healthcare impact of obstructive sleep apnoea, and the beneficial effects of CPAP treatment and carefully translates this evidence into an economic assessment. The report concludes that the economic cost of not recognising or not treating obstructive sleep apnoea outweighs the cost of intervention. From this perspective the report illustrates the economic benefits of investing in effective therapies for obstructive sleep apnoea. Australia is a world leader in research and technology relevant to obstructive sleep apnoea. The report conclusions highlight the additional need for healthcare policy initiatives leading to increased diagnosis and affordable treatment of this widespread health condition. Such public health initiatives will provide important benefits at the individual, community and national economic level.